Documents Ganeti version 1.2
Ganeti is a virtualization cluster management software. You are expected to be a system administrator familiar with your Linux distribution and the Xen virtualization environment before using it.
The various components of Ganeti all have man pages and interactive help. This manual though will help you getting familiar with the system by explaining the most common operations, grouped by related use.
After a terminology glossary and a section on the prerequisites needed to use this manual, the rest of this document is divided in three main sections, which group different features of Ganeti:
High Availability Features
This section provides a small introduction to Ganeti terminology, which might be useful to read the rest of the document.
A set of machines (nodes) that cooperate to offer a coherent highly available virtualization service.
A physical machine which is member of a cluster. Nodes are the basic cluster infrastructure, and are not fault tolerant.
The node which controls the Cluster, from which all Ganeti commands must be given.
A virtual machine which runs on a cluster. It can be a fault tolerant highly available entity.
A pool is a set of clusters sharing the same network.
Anything that concerns more than one cluster.
You need to have your Ganeti cluster installed and configured before you try any of the commands in this document. Please follow the Ganeti installation tutorial for instructions on how to do that.
Adding a new virtual instance to your Ganeti cluster is really easy. The command is:
gnt-instance add -n TARGET_NODE -o OS_TYPE -t DISK_TEMPLATE INSTANCE_NAMEThe instance name must be resolvable (e.g. exist in DNS) and of course map to an address in the same subnet as the cluster itself. Options you can give to this command include:
The disk size (
The swap size (
The memory size (
The number of virtual CPUs (
The instance ip address (
-i) (use the value
auto to make Ganeti record the address from
The bridge to connect the instance to (
if you don't want to use the default one
There are four types of disk template you can choose from:
The instance has no disks. Only used for special purpouse operating systems or for testing.
The instance will use LVM devices as backend for its disks. No redundancy is provided.
A local mirror is set between LVM devices to back the instance. This provides some redundancy for the instance's data.
Note: This is only valid for multi-node clusters using drbd 0.7.
A mirror is set between the local node and a remote one, which must be specified with the second value of the --node option. Use this option to obtain a highly available instance that can be failed over to a remote node should the primary one fail.
Note: This is only valid for multi-node clusters using drbd 8.0.
This is similar to the remote_raid1 option, but uses new features in drbd 8 to simplify the device stack. From a user's point of view, this will improve the speed of the replace-disks command and (in future versions) provide more functionality.
For example if you want to create an highly available instance use the remote_raid1 or drbd disk templates:
gnt-instance add -n TARGET_NODE[:SECONDARY_NODE] -o OS_TYPE -t remote_raid1 \ INSTANCE_NAME
To know which operating systems your cluster supports you can use
Removing an instance is even easier than creating one. This operation is non-reversible and destroys all the contents of your instance. Use with care:
gnt-instance remove INSTANCE_NAME
Instances are automatically started at instance creation time. To manually start one which is currently stopped you can run:
gnt-instance startup INSTANCE_NAMEWhile the command to stop one is:
gnt-instance shutdown INSTANCE_NAMEThe command to see all the instances configured and their status is:
Do not use the xen commands to stop instances. If you run for example xm shutdown or xm destroy on an instance Ganeti will automatically restart it (via the ganeti-watcher(8))
You can create a snapshot of an instance disk and Ganeti configuration, which then you can backup, or import into another cluster. The way to export an instance is:
gnt-backup export -n TARGET_NODE INSTANCE_NAMEThe target node can be any node in the cluster with enough space under /srv/ganeti to hold the instance image. Use the
--noshutdownoption to snapshot an instance without rebooting it. Any previous snapshot of the same instance existing cluster-wide under /srv/ganeti will be removed by this operation: if you want to keep them move them out of the Ganeti exports directory.
Importing an instance is similar to creating a new one. The command is:
gnt-backup import -n TARGET_NODE -t DISK_TEMPLATE --src-node=NODE --src-dir=DIR INSTANCE_NAMEMost of the options available for the command gnt-instance add are supported here too.
This section only applies to multi-node clusters.
If an instance is built in highly available mode you can at any time fail it over to its secondary node, even if the primary has somehow failed and it's not up anymore. Doing it is really easy, on the master node you can just run:
gnt-instance failover INSTANCE_NAMEThat's it. After the command completes the secondary node is now the primary, and vice versa.
So what if instead the secondary node for an instance has failed, or you plan to remove a node from your cluster, and you failed over all its instances, but it's still secondary for some? The solution here is to replace the instance disks, changing the secondary node. This is done in two ways, depending on the disk template type. For remote_raid1:
gnt-instance replace-disksand for drbd:
gnt-instance replace-disksThis process is a bit longer, but involves no instance downtime, and at the end of it the instance has changed its secondary node, to which it can if necessary be failed over.
This is all good as long as the Ganeti Master Node is up. Should it go down, or should you wish to decommission it, just run on any other node the command:
gnt-cluster masterfailoverand the node you ran it on is now the new master.
And of course, now that you know how to move instances around, it's easy to free up a node, and then you can remove it from the cluster:
gnt-node remove NODE_NAMEand maybe add a new one:
gnt-node add [
At some point you might need to do some debugging operations on your cluster or on your instances. This section will help you with the most used debugging functionalities.
From an instance's primary node you have access to its disks. Never ever mount the underlying logical volume manually on a fault tolerant instance, or you risk breaking replication. The correct way to access them is to run the command:
gnt-instance activate-disks INSTANCE_NAMEAnd then access the device that gets created. After you've finished you can deactivate them with the deactivate-disks command, which works in the same way.
The command to access a running instance's console is:
gnt-instance console INSTANCE_NAMEUse the console normally and then type ^] when done, to exit.
Should you have any problems with operating systems support the command to ran to see a complete status for all your nodes is:
The gnt-cluster command offers several options to run tests or execute cluster-wide operations. For example:
gnt-cluster command gnt-cluster copyfile gnt-cluster verify gnt-cluster getmaster gnt-cluster versionSee the man page gnt-cluster(8) to know more about their usage.