Name

gnt-instance - Ganeti instance administration

Synopsis

gnt-instance {command} [arguments...]

DESCRIPTION

The gnt-instance command is used for instance administration in the Ganeti system.

COMMANDS

Creation/removal/querying

ADD

add
{-t|--disk-template {diskless | file | plain | drbd | rbd}}
{--disk=N: {size=VAL[,spindles=VAL] | adopt=LV}[,options...]
| {size=VAL,provider=PROVIDER}[,param=value... ][,options...]
| {-s|--os-size} SIZE}
[--no-ip-check] [--no-name-check] [--no-conflicts-check]
[--no-start] [--no-install]
[--net=N [:options...] | --no-nics]
[{-B|--backend-parameters} BEPARAMS]
[{-H|--hypervisor-parameters} HYPERVISOR [: option=value... ]]
[{-O|--os-parameters} param=value... ]
[--file-storage-dir dir_path] [--file-driver {loop | blktap | blktap2}]
{{-n|--node} node[:secondary-node] | {-I|--iallocator} name}
{{-o|--os-type} os-type}
[--submit] [--print-job-id]
[--ignore-ipolicy]
[--no-wait-for-sync]
{instance}

Creates a new instance on the specified host. The instance argument must be in DNS, but depending on the bridge/routing setup, need not be in the same network as the nodes in the cluster.

The disk option specifies the parameters for the disks of the instance. The numbering of disks starts at zero, and at least one disk needs to be passed. For each disk, either the size or the adoption source needs to be given. The size is interpreted (when no unit is given) in mebibytes. You can also use one of the suffixes m, g or t to specify the exact the units used; these suffixes map to mebibytes, gibibytes and tebibytes. Each disk can also take these parameters (all optional):

spindles

How many spindles (physical disks on the node) the disk should span.

mode

The access mode. Either ro (read-only) or the default rw (read-write).

name

This option specifies a name for the disk, which can be used as a disk identifier. An instance can not have two disks with the same name.

vg

The LVM volume group. This works only for LVM and DRBD devices.

metavg

This options specifies a different VG for the metadata device. This works only for DRBD devices. If not specified, the default metavg of the node-group (possibly inherited from the cluster-wide settings) will be used.

When creating ExtStorage disks, also arbitrary parameters can be passed, to the ExtStorage provider. Those parameters are passed as additional comma separated options. Therefore, an ExtStorage disk provided by provider pvdr1 with parameters param1, param2 would be passed as --disk 0:size=10G,provider=pvdr1,param1=val1,param2=val2.

When using the adopt key in the disk definition, Ganeti will reuse those volumes (instead of creating new ones) as the instance's disks. Ganeti will rename these volumes to the standard format, and (without installing the OS) will use them as-is for the instance. This allows migrating instances from non-managed mode (e.g. plain KVM with LVM) to being managed via Ganeti. Please note that this works only for the `plain' disk template (see below for template details).

Alternatively, a single-disk instance can be created via the -s option which takes a single argument, the size of the disk. This is similar to the Ganeti 1.2 version (but will only create one disk).

The minimum disk specification is therefore --disk 0:size=20G (or -s 20G when using the -s option), and a three-disk instance can be specified as --disk 0:size=20G --disk 1:size=4G --disk 2:size=100G.

The minimum information needed to specify an ExtStorage disk are the size and the provider. For example: --disk 0:size=20G,provider=pvdr1.

The --no-ip-check skips the checks that are done to see if the instance's IP is not already alive (i.e. reachable from the master node).

The --no-name-check skips the check for the instance name via the resolver (e.g. in DNS or /etc/hosts, depending on your setup). Since the name check is used to compute the IP address, if you pass this option you must also pass the --no-ip-check option.

If you don't want the instance to automatically start after creation, this is possible via the --no-start option. This will leave the instance down until a subsequent gnt-instance start command.

The NICs of the instances can be specified via the --net option. By default, one NIC is created for the instance, with a random MAC, and set up according the the cluster level NIC parameters. Each NIC can take these parameters (all optional):

mac

either a value or 'generate' to generate a new unique MAC

ip

specifies the IP address assigned to the instance from the Ganeti side (this is not necessarily what the instance will use, but what the node expects the instance to use). Note that if an IP in the range of a network configured with gnt-network(8) is used, and the NIC is not already connected to it, this network has to be passed in the network parameter if this NIC is meant to be connected to the said network. --no-conflicts-check can be used to override this check. The special value pool causes Ganeti to select an IP from the the network the NIC is or will be connected to. One can pick an externally reserved IP of a network along with --no-conflict-check. Note that this IP cannot be assigned to any other instance until it gets released.

mode

specifies the connection mode for this NIC: routed, bridged or openvswitch.

link

in bridged or openvswitch mode specifies the interface to attach this NIC to, in routed mode it's intended to differentiate between different routing tables/instance groups (but the meaning is dependent on the network script, see gnt-cluster(8) for more details). Note that openvswitch support is also hypervisor dependent.

network

derives the mode and the link from the settings of the network which is identified by its name. If the network option is chosen, link and mode must not be specified. Note that the mode and link depend on the network-to-nodegroup connection, thus allowing different nodegroups to be connected to the same network in different ways.

name

this option specifies a name for the NIC, which can be used as a NIC identifier. An instance can not have two NICs with the same name.

vlan

in openvswitch mode specifies the VLANs that the NIC will be connected to. To connect as an access port use n or .n with n being the VLAN ID. To connect as an trunk port use :n[:n]. A hybrid port can be created with .n:n[:n]

Of these "mode" and "link" are NIC parameters, and inherit their default at cluster level. Alternatively, if no network is desired for the instance, you can prevent the default of one NIC with the --no-nics option.

The -o (--os-type) option specifies the operating system to be installed. The available operating systems can be listed with gnt-os list. Passing --no-install will however skip the OS installation, allowing a manual import if so desired. Note that the no-installation mode will automatically disable the start-up of the instance (without an OS, it most likely won't be able to start-up successfully).

The -B (--backend-parameters) option specifies the backend parameters for the instance. If no such parameters are specified, the values are inherited from the cluster. Possible parameters are:

maxmem

the maximum memory size of the instance; as usual, suffixes can be used to denote the unit, otherwise the value is taken in mebibytes

minmem

the minimum memory size of the instance; as usual, suffixes can be used to denote the unit, otherwise the value is taken in mebibytes

vcpus

the number of VCPUs to assign to the instance (if this value makes sense for the hypervisor)

auto_balance

whether the instance is considered in the N+1 cluster checks (enough redundancy in the cluster to survive a node failure)

always_failover

True or False, whether the instance must be failed over (shut down and rebooted) always or it may be migrated (briefly suspended)

Note that before 2.6 Ganeti had a memory parameter, which was the only value of memory an instance could have. With the maxmem/minmem change Ganeti guarantees that at least the minimum memory is always available for an instance, but allows more memory to be used (up to the maximum memory) should it be free.

The -H (--hypervisor-parameters) option specified the hypervisor to use for the instance (must be one of the enabled hypervisors on the cluster) and optionally custom parameters for this instance. If not other options are used (i.e. the invocation is just -H NAME) the instance will inherit the cluster options. The defaults below show the cluster defaults at cluster creation time.

The possible hypervisor options are as follows:

boot_order

Valid for the Xen HVM and KVM hypervisors.

A string value denoting the boot order. This has different meaning for the Xen HVM hypervisor and for the KVM one.

For Xen HVM, The boot order is a string of letters listing the boot devices, with valid device letters being:

a

floppy drive

c

hard disk

d

CDROM drive

n

network boot (PXE)

The default is not to set an HVM boot order, which is interpreted as 'dc'.

For KVM the boot order is either "floppy", "cdrom", "disk" or "network". Please note that older versions of KVM couldn't netboot from virtio interfaces. This has been fixed in more recent versions and is confirmed to work at least with qemu-kvm 0.11.1. Also note that if you have set the kernel_path option, that will be used for booting, and this setting will be silently ignored.

blockdev_prefix

Valid for the Xen HVM and PVM hypervisors.

Relevant to non-pvops guest kernels, in which the disk device names are given by the host. Allows one to specify 'xvd', which helps run Red Hat based installers, driven by anaconda.

floppy_image_path

Valid for the KVM hypervisor.

The path to a floppy disk image to attach to the instance. This is useful to install Windows operating systems on Virt/IO disks because you can specify here the floppy for the drivers at installation time.

cdrom_image_path

Valid for the Xen HVM and KVM hypervisors.

The path to a CDROM image to attach to the instance.

cdrom2_image_path

Valid for the KVM hypervisor.

The path to a second CDROM image to attach to the instance. NOTE: This image can't be used to boot the system. To do that you have to use the 'cdrom_image_path' option.

nic_type

Valid for the Xen HVM and KVM hypervisors.

This parameter determines the way the network cards are presented to the instance. The possible options are:

vif_type

Valid for the Xen HVM hypervisor.

This parameter specifies the vif type of the nic configuration of the instance. Unsetting the value leads to no type being specified in the configuration. Note that this parameter only takes effect when the 'nic_type' is not set. The possible options are:

disk_type

Valid for the Xen HVM and KVM hypervisors.

This parameter determines the way the disks are presented to the instance. The possible options are:

cdrom_disk_type

Valid for the KVM hypervisor.

This parameter determines the way the cdroms disks are presented to the instance. The default behavior is to get the same value of the earlier parameter (disk_type). The possible options are:

vnc_bind_address

Valid for the Xen HVM and KVM hypervisors.

Specifies the address that the VNC listener for this instance should bind to. Valid values are IPv4 addresses. Use the address 0.0.0.0 to bind to all available interfaces (this is the default) or specify the address of one of the interfaces on the node to restrict listening to that interface.

vnc_password_file

Valid for the Xen HVM and KVM hypervisors.

Specifies the location of the file containing the password for connections using VNC. The default is a file named vnc-cluster-password which can be found in the configuration directory.

vnc_tls

Valid for the KVM hypervisor.

A boolean option that controls whether the VNC connection is secured with TLS.

vnc_x509_path

Valid for the KVM hypervisor.

If vnc_tls is enabled, this options specifies the path to the x509 certificate to use.

vnc_x509_verify

Valid for the KVM hypervisor.

spice_bind

Valid for the KVM hypervisor.

Specifies the address or interface on which the SPICE server will listen. Valid values are:

If a network interface is specified, the SPICE server will be bound to one of the addresses of that interface.

spice_ip_version

Valid for the KVM hypervisor.

Specifies which version of the IP protocol should be used by the SPICE server.

It is mainly intended to be used for specifying what kind of IP addresses should be used if a network interface with both IPv4 and IPv6 addresses is specified via the spice_bind parameter. In this case, if the spice_ip_version parameter is not used, the default IP version of the cluster will be used.

spice_password_file

Valid for the KVM hypervisor.

Specifies a file containing the password that must be used when connecting via the SPICE protocol. If the option is not specified, passwordless connections are allowed.

spice_image_compression

Valid for the KVM hypervisor.

Configures the SPICE lossless image compression. Valid values are:

spice_jpeg_wan_compression

Valid for the KVM hypervisor.

Configures how SPICE should use the jpeg algorithm for lossy image compression on slow links. Valid values are:

spice_zlib_glz_wan_compression

Valid for the KVM hypervisor.

Configures how SPICE should use the zlib-glz algorithm for lossy image compression on slow links. Valid values are:

spice_streaming_video

Valid for the KVM hypervisor.

Configures how SPICE should detect video streams. Valid values are:

spice_playback_compression

Valid for the KVM hypervisor.

Configures whether SPICE should compress audio streams or not.

spice_use_tls

Valid for the KVM hypervisor.

Specifies that the SPICE server must use TLS to encrypt all the traffic with the client.

spice_tls_ciphers

Valid for the KVM hypervisor.

Specifies a list of comma-separated ciphers that SPICE should use for TLS connections. For the format, see man cipher(1).

spice_use_vdagent

Valid for the KVM hypervisor.

Enables or disables passing mouse events via SPICE vdagent.

cpu_type

Valid for the KVM hypervisor.

This parameter determines the emulated cpu for the instance. If this parameter is empty (which is the default configuration), it will not be passed to KVM.

Be aware of setting this parameter to "host" if you have nodes with different CPUs from each other. Live migration may stop working in this situation.

For more information please refer to the KVM manual.

acpi

Valid for the Xen HVM and KVM hypervisors.

A boolean option that specifies if the hypervisor should enable ACPI support for this instance. By default, ACPI is disabled.

ACPI should be enabled for user shutdown detection. See user_shutdown.

pae

Valid for the Xen HVM and KVM hypervisors.

A boolean option that specifies if the hypervisor should enable PAE support for this instance. The default is false, disabling PAE support.

viridian

Valid for the Xen HVM hypervisor.

A boolean option that specifies if the hypervisor should enable viridian (Hyper-V) for this instance. The default is false, disabling viridian support.

use_localtime

Valid for the Xen HVM and KVM hypervisors.

A boolean option that specifies if the instance should be started with its clock set to the localtime of the machine (when true) or to the UTC (When false). The default is false, which is useful for Linux/Unix machines; for Windows OSes, it is recommended to enable this parameter.

kernel_path

Valid for the Xen PVM and KVM hypervisors.

This option specifies the path (on the node) to the kernel to boot the instance with. Xen PVM instances always require this, while for KVM if this option is empty, it will cause the machine to load the kernel from its disks (and the boot will be done accordingly to boot_order).

kernel_args

Valid for the Xen PVM and KVM hypervisors.

This options specifies extra arguments to the kernel that will be loaded. device. This is always used for Xen PVM, while for KVM it is only used if the kernel_path option is also specified.

The default setting for this value is simply "ro", which mounts the root disk (initially) in read-only one. For example, setting this to single will cause the instance to start in single-user mode.

initrd_path

Valid for the Xen PVM and KVM hypervisors.

This option specifies the path (on the node) to the initrd to boot the instance with. Xen PVM instances can use this always, while for KVM if this option is only used if the kernel_path option is also specified. You can pass here either an absolute filename (the path to the initrd) if you want to use an initrd, or use the format no_initrd_path for no initrd.

root_path

Valid for the Xen PVM and KVM hypervisors.

This options specifies the name of the root device. This is always needed for Xen PVM, while for KVM it is only used if the kernel_path option is also specified.

Please note, that if this setting is an empty string and the hypervisor is Xen it will not be written to the Xen configuration file

serial_console

Valid for the KVM hypervisor.

This boolean option specifies whether to emulate a serial console for the instance. Note that some versions of KVM have a bug that will make an instance hang when configured to use the serial console unless a connection is made to it within about 2 seconds of the instance's startup. For such case it's recommended to disable this option, which is enabled by default.

serial_speed

Valid for the KVM hypervisor.

This integer option specifies the speed of the serial console. Common values are 9600, 19200, 38400, 57600 and 115200: choose the one which works on your system. (The default is 38400 for historical reasons, but newer versions of kvm/qemu work with 115200)

disk_cache

Valid for the KVM hypervisor.

The disk cache mode. It can be either default to not pass any cache option to KVM, or one of the KVM cache modes: none (for direct I/O), writethrough (to use the host cache but report completion to the guest only when the host has committed the changes to disk) or writeback (to use the host cache and report completion as soon as the data is in the host cache). Note that there are special considerations for the cache mode depending on version of KVM used and disk type (always raw file under Ganeti), please refer to the KVM documentation for more details.

security_model

Valid for the KVM hypervisor.

The security model for kvm. Currently one of none, user or pool. Under none, the default, nothing is done and instances are run as the Ganeti daemon user (normally root).

Under user kvm will drop privileges and become the user specified by the security_domain parameter.

Under pool a global cluster pool of users will be used, making sure no two instances share the same user on the same node. (this mode is not implemented yet)

security_domain

Valid for the KVM hypervisor.

Under security model user the username to run the instance under. It must be a valid username existing on the host.

Cannot be set under security model none or pool.

kvm_flag

Valid for the KVM hypervisor.

If enabled the -enable-kvm flag is passed to kvm. If disabled -disable-kvm is passed. If unset no flag is passed, and the default running mode for your kvm binary will be used.

mem_path

Valid for the KVM hypervisor.

This option passes the -mem-path argument to kvm with the path (on the node) to the mount point of the hugetlbfs file system, along with the -mem-prealloc argument too.

use_chroot

Valid for the KVM hypervisor.

This boolean option determines whether to run the KVM instance in a chroot directory.

If it is set to true, an empty directory is created before starting the instance and its path is passed via the -chroot flag to kvm. The directory is removed when the instance is stopped.

It is set to false by default.

user_shutdown

Valid for the KVM hypervisor.

This boolean option determines whether the KVM instance suports user shutdown detection. This option does not necessarily require ACPI enabled, but ACPI must be enabled for users to poweroff their KVM instances.

If it is set to true, the user can shutdown this KVM instance and its status is reported as USER_down.

It is set to false by default.

migration_downtime

Valid for the KVM hypervisor.

The maximum amount of time (in ms) a KVM instance is allowed to be frozen during a live migration, in order to copy dirty memory pages. Default value is 30ms, but you may need to increase this value for busy instances.

This option is only effective with kvm versions >= 87 and qemu-kvm versions >= 0.11.0.

cpu_mask

Valid for the Xen, KVM and LXC hypervisors.

The processes belonging to the given instance are only scheduled on the specified CPUs.

The format of the mask can be given in three forms. First, the word "all", which signifies the common case where all VCPUs can live on any CPU, based on the hypervisor's decisions.

Second, a comma-separated list of CPU IDs or CPU ID ranges. The ranges are defined by a lower and higher boundary, separated by a dash, and the boundaries are inclusive. In this form, all VCPUs of the instance will be mapped on the selected list of CPUs. Example: 0-2,5, mapping all VCPUs (no matter how many) onto physical CPUs 0, 1, 2 and 5.

The last form is used for explicit control of VCPU-CPU pinnings. In this form, the list of VCPU mappings is given as a colon (:) separated list, whose elements are the possible values for the second or first form above. In this form, the number of elements in the colon-separated list _must_ equal the number of VCPUs of the instance.

Example:

# Map the entire instance to CPUs 0-2
gnt-instance modify -H cpu_mask=0-2 my-inst

# Map vCPU 0 to physical CPU 1 and vCPU 1 to CPU 3 (assuming 2 vCPUs)
gnt-instance modify -H cpu_mask=1:3 my-inst

# Pin vCPU 0 to CPUs 1 or 2, and vCPU 1 to any CPU
gnt-instance modify -H cpu_mask=1-2:all my-inst

# Pin vCPU 0 to any CPU, vCPU 1 to CPUs 1, 3, 4 or 5, and CPU 2 to
# CPU 0 (backslashes for escaping the comma)
gnt-instance modify -H cpu_mask=all:1\\,3-5:0 my-inst

# Pin entire VM to CPU 0
gnt-instance modify -H cpu_mask=0 my-inst

# Turn off CPU pinning (default setting)
gnt-instance modify -H cpu_mask=all my-inst
cpu_cap

Valid for the Xen hypervisor.

Set the maximum amount of cpu usage by the VM. The value is a percentage between 0 and (100 * number of VCPUs). Default cap is 0: unlimited.

cpu_weight

Valid for the Xen hypervisor.

Set the cpu time ratio to be allocated to the VM. Valid values are between 1 and 65535. Default weight is 256.

usb_mouse

Valid for the KVM hypervisor.

This option specifies the usb mouse type to be used. It can be "mouse" or "tablet". When using VNC it's recommended to set it to "tablet".

keymap

Valid for the KVM hypervisor.

This option specifies the keyboard mapping to be used. It is only needed when using the VNC console. For example: "fr" or "en-gb".

reboot_behavior

Valid for Xen PVM, Xen HVM and KVM hypervisors.

Normally if an instance reboots, the hypervisor will restart it. If this option is set to exit, the hypervisor will treat a reboot as a shutdown instead.

It is set to reboot by default.

cpu_cores

Valid for the KVM hypervisor.

Number of emulated CPU cores.

cpu_threads

Valid for the KVM hypervisor.

Number of emulated CPU threads.

cpu_sockets

Valid for the KVM hypervisor.

Number of emulated CPU sockets.

soundhw

Valid for the KVM and XEN hypervisors.

Comma separated list of emulated sounds cards, or "all" to enable all the available ones.

cpuid

Valid for the XEN hypervisor.

Modify the values returned by CPUID instructions run within instances.

This allows you to enable migration between nodes with different CPU attributes like cores, threads, hyperthreading or SS4 support by hiding the extra features where needed.

See the XEN documentation for syntax and more information.

usb_devices

Valid for the KVM hypervisor.

Space separated list of usb devices. These can be emulated devices or passthrough ones, and each one gets passed to kvm with its own -usbdevice option. See the qemu(1) manpage for the syntax of the possible components. Note that values set with this parameter are split on a space character and currently don't support quoting. For backwards compatibility reasons, the RAPI interface keeps accepting comma separated lists too.

vga

Valid for the KVM hypervisor.

Emulated vga mode, passed the the kvm -vga option.

kvm_extra

Valid for the KVM hypervisor.

Any other option to the KVM hypervisor, useful tweaking anything that Ganeti doesn't support. Note that values set with this parameter are split on a space character and currently don't support quoting.

machine_version

Valid for the KVM hypervisor.

Use in case an instance must be booted with an exact type of machine version (due to e.g. outdated drivers). In case it's not set the default version supported by your version of kvm is used.

kvm_path

Valid for the KVM hypervisor.

Path to the userspace KVM (or qemu) program.

vnet_hdr

Valid for the KVM hypervisor.

This boolean option determines whether the tap devices used by the KVM paravirtual nics (virtio-net) will get created with VNET_HDR (IFF_VNET_HDR) support.

If set to false, it effectively disables offloading on the virio-net interfaces, which prevents host kernel tainting and log flooding, when dealing with broken or malicious virtio-net drivers.

It is set to true by default.

The -O (--os-parameters) option allows customisation of the OS parameters. The actual parameter names and values depend on the OS being used, but the syntax is the same key=value. For example, setting a hypothetical dhcp parameter to yes can be achieved by:

gnt-instance add -O dhcp=yes ...

The -I (--iallocator) option specifies the instance allocator plugin to use (. means the default allocator). If you pass in this option the allocator will select nodes for this instance automatically, so you don't need to pass them with the -n option. For more information please refer to the instance allocator documentation.

The -t (--disk-template) options specifies the disk layout type for the instance. If no disk template is specified, the default disk template is used. The default disk template is the first in the list of enabled disk templates, which can be adjusted cluster-wide with gnt-cluster modify. The available choices for disk templates are:

diskless

This creates an instance with no disks. Its useful for testing only (or other special cases).

file

Disk devices will be regular files.

sharedfile

Disk devices will be regulare files on a shared directory.

plain

Disk devices will be logical volumes.

drbd

Disk devices will be drbd (version 8.x) on top of lvm volumes.

rbd

Disk devices will be rbd volumes residing inside a RADOS cluster.

blockdev

Disk devices will be adopted pre-existent block devices.

ext

Disk devices will be provided by external shared storage, through the ExtStorage Interface using ExtStorage providers.

The optional second value of the -n (--node) is used for the drbd template type and specifies the remote node.

If you do not want gnt-instance to wait for the disk mirror to be synced, use the --no-wait-for-sync option.

The --file-storage-dir specifies the relative path under the cluster-wide file storage directory to store file-based disks. It is useful for having different subdirectories for different instances. The full path of the directory where the disk files are stored will consist of cluster-wide file storage directory + optional subdirectory + instance name. This option is only relevant for instances using the file storage backend.

The --file-driver specifies the driver to use for file-based disks. Note that currently these drivers work with the xen hypervisor only. This option is only relevant for instances using the file storage backend. The available choices are:

loop

Kernel loopback driver. This driver uses loopback devices to access the filesystem within the file. However, running I/O intensive applications in your instance using the loop driver might result in slowdowns. Furthermore, if you use the loopback driver consider increasing the maximum amount of loopback devices (on most systems it's 8) using the max_loop param.

blktap

The blktap driver (for Xen hypervisors). In order to be able to use the blktap driver you should check if the 'blktapctrl' user space disk agent is running (usually automatically started via xend). This user-level disk I/O interface has the advantage of better performance. Especially if you use a network file system (e.g. NFS) to store your instances this is the recommended choice.

blktap2

Analogous to the blktap driver, but used by newer versions of Xen.

If --ignore-ipolicy is given any instance policy violations occuring during this operation are ignored.

See ganeti(7) for a description of --submit and other common options.

Example:

# gnt-instance add -t file --disk 0:size=30g -B maxmem=512 -o debian-etch \
  -n node1.example.com --file-storage-dir=mysubdir instance1.example.com
# gnt-instance add -t plain --disk 0:size=30g -B maxmem=1024,minmem=512 \
  -o debian-etch -n node1.example.com instance1.example.com
# gnt-instance add -t plain --disk 0:size=30g --disk 1:size=100g,vg=san \
  -B maxmem=512 -o debian-etch -n node1.example.com instance1.example.com
# gnt-instance add -t drbd --disk 0:size=30g -B maxmem=512 -o debian-etch \
  -n node1.example.com:node2.example.com instance2.example.com
# gnt-instance add -t rbd --disk 0:size=30g -B maxmem=512 -o debian-etch \
  -n node1.example.com instance1.example.com
# gnt-instance add -t ext --disk 0:size=30g,provider=pvdr1 -B maxmem=512 \
  -o debian-etch -n node1.example.com instance1.example.com
# gnt-instance add -t ext --disk 0:size=30g,provider=pvdr1,param1=val1 \
  --disk 1:size=40g,provider=pvdr2,param2=val2,param3=val3 -B maxmem=512 \
  -o debian-etch -n node1.example.com instance1.example.com

BATCH-CREATE

batch-create
[{-I|--iallocator} instance allocator]
{instances_file.json}

This command (similar to the Ganeti 1.2 batcher tool) submits multiple instance creation jobs based on a definition file. This file can contain all options which are valid when adding an instance with the exception of the iallocator field. The IAllocator is, for optimization purposes, only allowed to be set for the whole batch operation using the --iallocator parameter.

The instance file must be a valid-formed JSON file, containing an array of dictionaries with instance creation parameters. All parameters (except iallocator) which are valid for the instance creation OP code are allowed. The most important ones are:

instance_name

The FQDN of the new instance.

disk_template

The disk template to use for the instance, the same as in the add command.

disks

Array of disk specifications. Each entry describes one disk as a dictionary of disk parameters.

beparams

A dictionary of backend parameters.

hypervisor

The hypervisor for the instance.

hvparams

A dictionary with the hypervisor options. If not passed, the default hypervisor options will be inherited.

nics

List of NICs that will be created for the instance. Each entry should be a dict, with mac, ip, mode and link as possible keys. Please don't provide the "mac, ip, mode, link" parent keys if you use this method for specifying NICs.

pnode, snode

The primary and optionally the secondary node to use for the instance (in case an iallocator script is not used). If those parameters are given, they have to be given consistently for all instances in the batch operation.

start

whether to start the instance

ip_check

Skip the check for already-in-use instance; see the description in the add command for details.

name_check

Skip the name check for instances; see the description in the add command for details.

file_storage_dir, file_driver

Configuration for the file disk type, see the add command for details.

A simple definition for one instance can be (with most of the parameters taken from the cluster defaults):

[
  {
    "mode": "create",
    "instance_name": "instance1.example.com",
    "disk_template": "drbd",
    "os_type": "debootstrap",
    "disks": [{"size":"1024"}],
    "nics": [{}],
    "hypervisor": "xen-pvm"
  },
  {
    "mode": "create",
    "instance_name": "instance2.example.com",
    "disk_template": "drbd",
    "os_type": "debootstrap",
    "disks": [{"size":"4096", "mode": "rw", "vg": "xenvg"}],
    "nics": [{}],
    "hypervisor": "xen-hvm",
    "hvparams": {"acpi": true},
    "beparams": {"maxmem": 512, "minmem": 256}
  }
]

The command will display the job id for each submitted instance, as follows:

# gnt-instance batch-create instances.json
Submitted jobs 37, 38

Note: If the allocator is used for computing suitable nodes for the instances, it will only take into account disk information for the default disk template. That means, even if other disk templates are specified for the instances, storage space information of these disk templates will not be considered in the allocation computation.

REMOVE

remove [--ignore-failures] [--shutdown-timeout=N] [--submit]
[--print-job-id] [--force] {instance}

Remove an instance. This will remove all data from the instance and there is no way back. If you are not sure if you use an instance again, use shutdown first and leave it in the shutdown state for a while.

The --ignore-failures option will cause the removal to proceed even in the presence of errors during the removal of the instance (e.g. during the shutdown or the disk removal). If this option is not given, the command will stop at the first error.

The --shutdown-timeout is used to specify how much time to wait before forcing the shutdown (e.g. xm destroy in Xen, killing the kvm process for KVM, etc.). By default two minutes are given to each instance to stop.

The --force option is used to skip the interactive confirmation.

See ganeti(7) for a description of --submit and other common options.

Example:

# gnt-instance remove instance1.example.com

LIST

list
[--no-headers] [--separator=SEPARATOR] [--units=UNITS] [-v]
[{-o|--output} [+]FIELD,...] [--filter] [instance...]

Shows the currently configured instances with memory usage, disk usage, the node they are running on, and their run status.

The --no-headers option will skip the initial header line. The --separator option takes an argument which denotes what will be used between the output fields. Both these options are to help scripting.

The units used to display the numeric values in the output varies, depending on the options given. By default, the values will be formatted in the most appropriate unit. If the --separator option is given, then the values are shown in mebibytes to allow parsing by scripts. In both cases, the --units option can be used to enforce a given output unit.

The -v option activates verbose mode, which changes the display of special field states (see ganeti(7)).

The -o (--output) option takes a comma-separated list of output fields. The available fields and their meaning are:

admin_state

Desired state of the instance

admin_state_source

Who last changed the desired state of the instance

admin_up

Desired state of the instance

be/always_failover

The "always_failover" backend parameter

be/auto_balance

The "auto_balance" backend parameter

be/maxmem

The "maxmem" backend parameter

be/memory

The "maxmem" backend parameter

be/minmem

The "minmem" backend parameter

be/spindle_use

The "spindle_use" backend parameter

be/vcpus

The "vcpus" backend parameter

beparams

Backend parameters (merged)

bridge

Bridge of 1st network interface

console

Instance console information

ctime

Creation timestamp

custom_beparams

Custom backend parameters

custom_hvparams

Custom hypervisor parameters

custom_nicparams

Custom network interface parameters

custom_osparams

Custom operating system parameters

disk.count

Number of disks

disk.name/0

Name of 1st disk

disk.name/1

Name of 2nd disk

disk.name/2

Name of 3rd disk

disk.name/3

Name of 4th disk

disk.name/4

Name of 5th disk

disk.name/5

Name of 6th disk

disk.name/6

Name of 7th disk

disk.name/7

Name of 8th disk

disk.name/8

Name of 9th disk

disk.name/9

Name of 10th disk

disk.name/10

Name of 11th disk

disk.name/11

Name of 12th disk

disk.name/12

Name of 13th disk

disk.name/13

Name of 14th disk

disk.name/14

Name of 15th disk

disk.name/15

Name of 16th disk

disk.names

List of disk names

disk.size/0

Disk size of 1st disk

disk.size/1

Disk size of 2nd disk

disk.size/2

Disk size of 3rd disk

disk.size/3

Disk size of 4th disk

disk.size/4

Disk size of 5th disk

disk.size/5

Disk size of 6th disk

disk.size/6

Disk size of 7th disk

disk.size/7

Disk size of 8th disk

disk.size/8

Disk size of 9th disk

disk.size/9

Disk size of 10th disk

disk.size/10

Disk size of 11th disk

disk.size/11

Disk size of 12th disk

disk.size/12

Disk size of 13th disk

disk.size/13

Disk size of 14th disk

disk.size/14

Disk size of 15th disk

disk.size/15

Disk size of 16th disk

disk.sizes

List of disk sizes

disk.spindles

List of disk spindles

disk.spindles/0

Spindles of 1st disk

disk.spindles/1

Spindles of 2nd disk

disk.spindles/2

Spindles of 3rd disk

disk.spindles/3

Spindles of 4th disk

disk.spindles/4

Spindles of 5th disk

disk.spindles/5

Spindles of 6th disk

disk.spindles/6

Spindles of 7th disk

disk.spindles/7

Spindles of 8th disk

disk.spindles/8

Spindles of 9th disk

disk.spindles/9

Spindles of 10th disk

disk.spindles/10

Spindles of 11th disk

disk.spindles/11

Spindles of 12th disk

disk.spindles/12

Spindles of 13th disk

disk.spindles/13

Spindles of 14th disk

disk.spindles/14

Spindles of 15th disk

disk.spindles/15

Spindles of 16th disk

disk.uuid/0

UUID of 1st disk

disk.uuid/1

UUID of 2nd disk

disk.uuid/2

UUID of 3rd disk

disk.uuid/3

UUID of 4th disk

disk.uuid/4

UUID of 5th disk

disk.uuid/5

UUID of 6th disk

disk.uuid/6

UUID of 7th disk

disk.uuid/7

UUID of 8th disk

disk.uuid/8

UUID of 9th disk

disk.uuid/9

UUID of 10th disk

disk.uuid/10

UUID of 11th disk

disk.uuid/11

UUID of 12th disk

disk.uuid/12

UUID of 13th disk

disk.uuid/13

UUID of 14th disk

disk.uuid/14

UUID of 15th disk

disk.uuid/15

UUID of 16th disk

disk.uuids

List of disk UUIDs

disk_template

Instance disk template

disk_usage

Total disk space used by instance on each of its nodes; this is not the disk size visible to the instance, but the usage on the node

disks_active

Desired state of the instance disks

hv/acpi

The "acpi" hypervisor parameter

hv/blockdev_prefix

The "blockdev_prefix" hypervisor parameter

hv/boot_order

The "boot_order" hypervisor parameter

hv/bootloader_args

The "bootloader_args" hypervisor parameter

hv/bootloader_path

The "bootloader_path" hypervisor parameter

hv/cdrom2_image_path

The "cdrom2_image_path" hypervisor parameter

hv/cdrom_disk_type

The "cdrom_disk_type" hypervisor parameter

hv/cdrom_image_path

The "cdrom_image_path" hypervisor parameter

hv/cpu_cap

The "cpu_cap" hypervisor parameter

hv/cpu_cores

The "cpu_cores" hypervisor parameter

hv/cpu_mask

The "cpu_mask" hypervisor parameter

hv/cpu_sockets

The "cpu_sockets" hypervisor parameter

hv/cpu_threads

The "cpu_threads" hypervisor parameter

hv/cpu_type

The "cpu_type" hypervisor parameter

hv/cpu_weight

The "cpu_weight" hypervisor parameter

hv/cpuid

The "cpuid" hypervisor parameter

hv/device_model

The "device_model" hypervisor parameter

hv/disk_cache

The "disk_cache" hypervisor parameter

hv/disk_type

The "disk_type" hypervisor parameter

hv/floppy_image_path

The "floppy_image_path" hypervisor parameter

hv/init_script

The "init_script" hypervisor parameter

hv/initrd_path

The "initrd_path" hypervisor parameter

hv/kernel_args

The "kernel_args" hypervisor parameter

hv/kernel_path

The "kernel_path" hypervisor parameter

hv/keymap

The "keymap" hypervisor parameter

hv/kvm_extra

The "kvm_extra" hypervisor parameter

hv/kvm_flag

The "kvm_flag" hypervisor parameter

hv/kvm_path

The "kvm_path" hypervisor parameter

hv/machine_version

The "machine_version" hypervisor parameter

hv/mem_path

The "mem_path" hypervisor parameter

hv/migration_downtime

The "migration_downtime" hypervisor parameter

hv/nic_type

The "nic_type" hypervisor parameter

hv/pae

The "pae" hypervisor parameter

hv/pci_pass

The "pci_pass" hypervisor parameter

hv/reboot_behavior

The "reboot_behavior" hypervisor parameter

hv/root_path

The "root_path" hypervisor parameter

hv/security_domain

The "security_domain" hypervisor parameter

hv/security_model

The "security_model" hypervisor parameter

hv/serial_console

The "serial_console" hypervisor parameter

hv/serial_speed

The "serial_speed" hypervisor parameter

hv/soundhw

The "soundhw" hypervisor parameter

hv/spice_bind

The "spice_bind" hypervisor parameter

hv/spice_image_compression

The "spice_image_compression" hypervisor parameter

hv/spice_ip_version

The "spice_ip_version" hypervisor parameter

hv/spice_jpeg_wan_compression

The "spice_jpeg_wan_compression" hypervisor parameter

hv/spice_password_file

The "spice_password_file" hypervisor parameter

hv/spice_playback_compression

The "spice_playback_compression" hypervisor parameter

hv/spice_streaming_video

The "spice_streaming_video" hypervisor parameter

hv/spice_tls_ciphers

The "spice_tls_ciphers" hypervisor parameter

hv/spice_use_tls

The "spice_use_tls" hypervisor parameter

hv/spice_use_vdagent

The "spice_use_vdagent" hypervisor parameter

hv/spice_zlib_glz_wan_compression

The "spice_zlib_glz_wan_compression" hypervisor parameter

hv/usb_devices

The "usb_devices" hypervisor parameter

hv/usb_mouse

The "usb_mouse" hypervisor parameter

hv/use_bootloader

The "use_bootloader" hypervisor parameter

hv/use_chroot

The "use_chroot" hypervisor parameter

hv/use_localtime

The "use_localtime" hypervisor parameter

hv/user_shutdown

The "user_shutdown" hypervisor parameter

hv/vga

The "vga" hypervisor parameter

hv/vhost_net

The "vhost_net" hypervisor parameter

hv/vif_script

The "vif_script" hypervisor parameter

hv/vif_type

The "vif_type" hypervisor parameter

hv/viridian

The "viridian" hypervisor parameter

hv/vnc_bind_address

The "vnc_bind_address" hypervisor parameter

hv/vnc_password_file

The "vnc_password_file" hypervisor parameter

hv/vnc_tls

The "vnc_tls" hypervisor parameter

hv/vnc_x509_path

The "vnc_x509_path" hypervisor parameter

hv/vnc_x509_verify

The "vnc_x509_verify" hypervisor parameter

hv/vnet_hdr

The "vnet_hdr" hypervisor parameter

hvparams

Hypervisor parameters (merged)

hypervisor

Hypervisor name

ip

IP address of 1st network interface

mac

MAC address of 1st network interface

mtime

Modification timestamp

name

Instance name

network_port

Instance network port if available (e.g. for VNC console)

nic.bridge/0

Bridge of 1st network interface

nic.bridge/1

Bridge of 2nd network interface

nic.bridge/2

Bridge of 3rd network interface

nic.bridge/3

Bridge of 4th network interface

nic.bridge/4

Bridge of 5th network interface

nic.bridge/5

Bridge of 6th network interface

nic.bridge/6

Bridge of 7th network interface

nic.bridge/7

Bridge of 8th network interface

nic.bridges

List containing each network interface's bridge

nic.count

Number of network interfaces

nic.ip/0

IP address of 1st network interface

nic.ip/1

IP address of 2nd network interface

nic.ip/2

IP address of 3rd network interface

nic.ip/3

IP address of 4th network interface

nic.ip/4

IP address of 5th network interface

nic.ip/5

IP address of 6th network interface

nic.ip/6

IP address of 7th network interface

nic.ip/7

IP address of 8th network interface

nic.ips

List containing each network interface's IP address

nic.link/0

Link of 1st network interface

nic.link/1

Link of 2nd network interface

nic.link/2

Link of 3rd network interface

nic.link/3

Link of 4th network interface

nic.link/4

Link of 5th network interface

nic.link/5

Link of 6th network interface

nic.link/6

Link of 7th network interface

nic.link/7

Link of 8th network interface

nic.links

List containing each network interface's link

nic.mac/0

MAC address of 1st network interface

nic.mac/1

MAC address of 2nd network interface

nic.mac/2

MAC address of 3rd network interface

nic.mac/3

MAC address of 4th network interface

nic.mac/4

MAC address of 5th network interface

nic.mac/5

MAC address of 6th network interface

nic.mac/6

MAC address of 7th network interface

nic.mac/7

MAC address of 8th network interface

nic.macs

List containing each network interface's MAC address

nic.mode/0

Mode of 1st network interface

nic.mode/1

Mode of 2nd network interface

nic.mode/2

Mode of 3rd network interface

nic.mode/3

Mode of 4th network interface

nic.mode/4

Mode of 5th network interface

nic.mode/5

Mode of 6th network interface

nic.mode/6

Mode of 7th network interface

nic.mode/7

Mode of 8th network interface

nic.modes

List containing each network interface's mode

nic.name/0

Name address of 1st network interface

nic.name/1

Name address of 2nd network interface

nic.name/2

Name address of 3rd network interface

nic.name/3

Name address of 4th network interface

nic.name/4

Name address of 5th network interface

nic.name/5

Name address of 6th network interface

nic.name/6

Name address of 7th network interface

nic.name/7

Name address of 8th network interface

nic.names

List containing each network interface's name

nic.network.name/0

Network name of 1st network interface

nic.network.name/1

Network name of 2nd network interface

nic.network.name/2

Network name of 3rd network interface

nic.network.name/3

Network name of 4th network interface

nic.network.name/4

Network name of 5th network interface

nic.network.name/5

Network name of 6th network interface

nic.network.name/6

Network name of 7th network interface

nic.network.name/7

Network name of 8th network interface

nic.network/0

Network of 1st network interface

nic.network/1

Network of 2nd network interface

nic.network/2

Network of 3rd network interface

nic.network/3

Network of 4th network interface

nic.network/4

Network of 5th network interface

nic.network/5

Network of 6th network interface

nic.network/6

Network of 7th network interface

nic.network/7

Network of 8th network interface

nic.networks

List containing each interface's network

nic.networks.names

List containing each interface's network

nic.uuid/0

UUID address of 1st network interface

nic.uuid/1

UUID address of 2nd network interface

nic.uuid/2

UUID address of 3rd network interface

nic.uuid/3

UUID address of 4th network interface

nic.uuid/4

UUID address of 5th network interface

nic.uuid/5

UUID address of 6th network interface

nic.uuid/6

UUID address of 7th network interface

nic.uuid/7

UUID address of 8th network interface

nic.uuids

List containing each network interface's UUID

nic.vlan/0

VLAN of 1st network interface

nic.vlan/1

VLAN of 2nd network interface

nic.vlan/2

VLAN of 3rd network interface

nic.vlan/3

VLAN of 4th network interface

nic.vlan/4

VLAN of 5th network interface

nic.vlan/5

VLAN of 6th network interface

nic.vlan/6

VLAN of 7th network interface

nic.vlan/7

VLAN of 8th network interface

nic.vlans

List containing each network interface's VLAN

nic_link

Link of 1st network interface

nic_mode

Mode of 1st network interface

nic_network

Network of 1st network interface

oper_ram

Actual memory usage as seen by hypervisor

oper_state

Actual state of instance

oper_vcpus

Actual number of VCPUs as seen by hypervisor

os

Operating system

osparams

Operating system parameters (merged)

pnode

Primary node

pnode.group

Primary node's group

pnode.group.uuid

Primary node's group UUID

sda_size

Disk size of 1st disk

sdb_size

Disk size of 2nd disk

serial_no

Instance object serial number, incremented on each modification

snodes

Secondary nodes; usually this will just be one node

snodes.group

Node groups of secondary nodes

snodes.group.uuid

Node group UUIDs of secondary nodes

status

Instance status; "running" if instance is set to be running and actually is, "ADMIN_down" if instance is stopped and is not running, "ERROR_wrongnode" if instance running, but not on its designated primary node, "ERROR_up" if instance should be stopped, but is actually running, "ERROR_down" if instance should run, but doesn't, "ERROR_nodedown" if instance's primary node is down, "ERROR_nodeoffline" if instance's primary node is marked offline, "ADMIN_offline" if instance is offline and does not use dynamic, "USER_down" if the user shutdown the instance resources

tags

Tags

uuid

Instance UUID

vcpus

The "vcpus" backend parameter

If the value of the option starts with the character +, the new field(s) will be added to the default list. This allows one to quickly see the default list plus a few other fields, instead of retyping the entire list of fields.

There is a subtle grouping about the available output fields: all fields except for oper_state, oper_ram, oper_vcpus and status are configuration value and not run-time values. So if you don't select any of the these fields, the query will be satisfied instantly from the cluster configuration, without having to ask the remote nodes for the data. This can be helpful for big clusters when you only want some data and it makes sense to specify a reduced set of output fields.

If exactly one argument is given and it appears to be a query filter (see ganeti(7)), the query result is filtered accordingly. For ambiguous cases (e.g. a single field name as a filter) the --filter (-F) option forces the argument to be treated as a filter (e.g. gnt-instance list -F admin_state).

The default output field list is: name, os, pnode, admin_state, oper_state, oper_ram.

LIST-FIELDS

list-fields [field...]

Lists available fields for instances.

INFO

info [-s | --static] [--roman] {--all | instance}

Show detailed information about the given instance(s). This is different from list as it shows detailed data about the instance's disks (especially useful for the drbd disk template).

If the option -s is used, only information available in the configuration file is returned, without querying nodes, making the operation faster.

Use the --all to get info about all instances, rather than explicitly passing the ones you're interested in.

The --roman option can be used to cause envy among people who like ancient cultures, but are stuck with non-latin-friendly cluster virtualization technologies.

MODIFY

modify
[{-H|--hypervisor-parameters} HYPERVISOR_PARAMETERS]
[{-B|--backend-parameters} BACKEND_PARAMETERS]
[{-m|--runtime-memory} SIZE]
[--net add[:options...] |
--net [N:]add[,options...] |
--net [ID:]remove |
--net ID:modify[,options...]]
[--disk add:size=SIZE[,options...] |
--disk N:add,size=SIZE[,options...] |
--disk N:add,size=SIZE,provider=PROVIDER[,options...][,param=value... ] |
--disk ID:modify[,options...]
--disk [ID:]remove]
[{-t|--disk-template} plain | {-t|--disk-template} drbd -n new_secondary] [--no-wait-for-sync]
[--new-primary=node]
[--os-type=OS [--force-variant]]
[{-O|--os-parameters} param=value... ]
[--offline | --online]
[--submit] [--print-job-id]
[--ignore-ipolicy]
[--hotplug]
[--hotplug-if-possible]
{instance}

Modifies the memory size, number of vcpus, ip address, MAC address and/or NIC parameters for an instance. It can also add and remove disks and NICs to/from the instance. Note that you need to give at least one of the arguments, otherwise the command complains.

The -H (--hypervisor-parameters), -B (--backend-parameters) and -O (--os-parameters) options specifies hypervisor, backend and OS parameter options in the form of name=value[,...]. For details which options can be specified, see the add command.

The -t (--disk-template) option will change the disk template of the instance. Currently only conversions between the plain and drbd disk templates are supported, and the instance must be stopped before attempting the conversion. When changing from the plain to the drbd disk template, a new secondary node must be specified via the -n option. The option --no-wait-for-sync can be used when converting to the drbd template in order to make the instance available for startup before DRBD has finished resyncing.

The -m (--runtime-memory) option will change an instance's runtime memory to the given size (in MB if a different suffix is not specified), by ballooning it up or down to the new value.

The --disk add:size=*SIZE*,[options..] option adds a disk to the instance, and --disk *N*:add:size=*SIZE*,[options..] will add a disk to the the instance at a specific index. The available options are the same as in the add command(spindles, mode, name, vg, metavg). Per default, gnt-instance waits for the disk mirror to sync. If you do not want this behavior, use the --no-wait-for-sync option. When adding an ExtStorage disk, the provider=*PROVIDER* option is also mandatory and specifies the ExtStorage provider. Also, for ExtStorage disks arbitrary parameters can be passed as additional comma separated options, same as in the add command. The --disk remove option will remove the last disk of the instance. Use --disk ID:remove to remove a disk by its identifier. ID can be the index of the disk, the disks's name or the disks's UUID. The --disk *ID*:modify[,options...] will change the options of the disk. Available options are:

mode

The access mode. Either ro (read-only) or the default rw (read-write).

name

This option specifies a name for the disk, which can be used as a disk identifier. An instance can not have two disks with the same name.

The --net *N*:add[,options..] will add a new network interface to the instance. The available options are the same as in the add command (mac, ip, link, mode, network). The --net *ID*,remove will remove the intances' NIC with ID identifier, which can be the index of the NIC, the NIC's name or the NIC's UUID. The --net *ID*:modify[,options..] option will change the parameters of the instance network interface with the ID identifier.

The option -o (--os-type) will change the OS name for the instance (without reinstallation). In case an OS variant is specified that is not found, then by default the modification is refused, unless --force-variant is passed. An invalid OS will also be refused, unless the --force option is given.

The option --new-primary will set the new primary node of an instance assuming the disks have already been moved manually. Unless the --force option is given, it is verified that the instance is no longer running on its current primary node.

The --online and --offline options are used to transition an instance into and out of the offline state. An instance can be turned offline only if it was previously down. The --online option fails if the instance was not in the offline state, otherwise it changes instance's state to down. These modifications take effect immediately.

If --ignore-ipolicy is given any instance policy violations occuring during this operation are ignored.

If --hotplug is given any disk and NIC modifications will take effect without the need of actual reboot. Please note that this feature is currently supported only for KVM hypervisor and there are some restrictions: a) KVM versions >= 1.0 support it b) instances with chroot or uid pool security model do not support disk hotplug c) RBD disks with userspace access mode can not be hotplugged (yet) d) if hotplug fails (for any reason) a warning is printed but execution is continued e) for existing NIC modification interactive verification is needed unless --force option is passed.

If --hotplug-if-possible is given then ganeti won't abort in case hotplug is not supported. It will continue execution and modification will take place after reboot. This covers use cases where instances are not running or hypervisor is not KVM.

See ganeti(7) for a description of --submit and other common options.

Most of the changes take effect at the next restart. If the instance is running, there is no effect on the instance.

REINSTALL

reinstall [{-o|--os-type} os-type] [--select-os] [-f force]
[--force-multiple]
[--instance | --node | --primary | --secondary | --all]
[{-O|--os-parameters} OS_PARAMETERS] [--submit] [--print-job-id]
{instance...}

Reinstalls the operating system on the given instance(s). The instance(s) must be stopped when running this command. If the -o (--os-type) is specified, the operating system is changed.

The --select-os option switches to an interactive OS reinstall. The user is prompted to select the OS template from the list of available OS templates. OS parameters can be overridden using -O (--os-parameters) (more documentation for this option under the add command).

Since this is a potentially dangerous command, the user will be required to confirm this action, unless the -f flag is passed. When multiple instances are selected (either by passing multiple arguments or by using the --node, --primary, --secondary or --all options), the user must pass the --force-multiple options to skip the interactive confirmation.

See ganeti(7) for a description of --submit and other common options.

RENAME

rename [--no-ip-check] [--no-name-check] [--submit] [--print-job-id]
{instance} {new_name}

Renames the given instance. The instance must be stopped when running this command. The requirements for the new name are the same as for adding an instance: the new name must be resolvable and the IP it resolves to must not be reachable (in order to prevent duplicate IPs the next time the instance is started). The IP test can be skipped if the --no-ip-check option is passed.

Note that you can rename an instance to its same name, to force re-executing the os-specific rename script for that instance, if needed.

The --no-name-check skips the check for the new instance name via the resolver (e.g. in DNS or /etc/hosts, depending on your setup) and that the resolved name matches the provided name. Since the name check is used to compute the IP address, if you pass this option you must also pass the --no-ip-check option.

See ganeti(7) for a description of --submit and other common options.

Starting/stopping/connecting to console

STARTUP

startup
[--force] [--ignore-offline]
[--force-multiple] [--no-remember]
[--instance | --node | --primary | --secondary | --all |
--tags | --node-tags | --pri-node-tags | --sec-node-tags]
[{-H|--hypervisor-parameters} key=value...]
[{-B|--backend-parameters} key=value...]
[--submit] [--print-job-id] [--paused]
{name...}

Starts one or more instances, depending on the following options. The four available modes are:

--instance

will start the instances given as arguments (at least one argument required); this is the default selection

--node

will start the instances who have the given node as either primary or secondary

--primary

will start all instances whose primary node is in the list of nodes passed as arguments (at least one node required)

--secondary

will start all instances whose secondary node is in the list of nodes passed as arguments (at least one node required)

--all

will start all instances in the cluster (no arguments accepted)

--tags

will start all instances in the cluster with the tags given as arguments

--node-tags

will start all instances in the cluster on nodes with the tags given as arguments

--pri-node-tags

will start all instances in the cluster on primary nodes with the tags given as arguments

--sec-node-tags

will start all instances in the cluster on secondary nodes with the tags given as arguments

Note that although you can pass more than one selection option, the last one wins, so in order to guarantee the desired result, don't pass more than one such option.

Use --force to start even if secondary disks are failing. --ignore-offline can be used to ignore offline primary nodes and mark the instance as started even if the primary is not available.

The --force-multiple will skip the interactive confirmation in the case the more than one instance will be affected.

The --no-remember option will perform the startup but not change the state of the instance in the configuration file (if it was stopped before, Ganeti will still think it needs to be stopped). This can be used for testing, or for a one shot-start where you don't want the watcher to restart the instance if it crashes.

The -H (--hypervisor-parameters) and -B (--backend-parameters) options specify temporary hypervisor and backend parameters that can be used to start an instance with modified parameters. They can be useful for quick testing without having to modify an instance back and forth, e.g.:

# gnt-instance start -H kernel_args="single" instance1
# gnt-instance start -B maxmem=2048 instance2

The first form will start the instance instance1 in single-user mode, and the instance instance2 with 2GB of RAM (this time only, unless that is the actual instance memory size already). Note that the values override the instance parameters (and not extend them): an instance with "kernel_args=ro" when started with -H kernel_args=single will result in "single", not "ro single".

The --paused option is only valid for Xen and kvm hypervisors. This pauses the instance at the start of bootup, awaiting gnt-instance console to unpause it, allowing the entire boot process to be monitored for debugging.

See ganeti(7) for a description of --submit and other common options.

Example:

# gnt-instance start instance1.example.com
# gnt-instance start --node node1.example.com node2.example.com
# gnt-instance start --all

SHUTDOWN

shutdown
[--timeout=N]
[--force] [--force-multiple] [--ignore-offline] [--no-remember]
[--instance | --node | --primary | --secondary | --all |
--tags | --node-tags | --pri-node-tags | --sec-node-tags]
[--submit] [--print-job-id]
{name...}

Stops one or more instances. If the instance cannot be cleanly stopped during a hardcoded interval (currently 2 minutes), it will forcibly stop the instance (equivalent to switching off the power on a physical machine).

The --timeout is used to specify how much time to wait before forcing the shutdown (e.g. xm destroy in Xen, killing the kvm process for KVM, etc.). By default two minutes are given to each instance to stop.

The --instance, --node, --primary, --secondary, --all, --tags, --node-tags, --pri-node-tags and --sec-node-tags options are similar as for the startup command and they influence the actual instances being shutdown.

--ignore-offline can be used to ignore offline primary nodes and force the instance to be marked as stopped. This option should be used with care as it can lead to an inconsistent cluster state.

Use --force to be able to shutdown an instance even when it's marked as offline. This is useful is an offline instance ends up in the ERROR_up state, for example.

The --no-remember option will perform the shutdown but not change the state of the instance in the configuration file (if it was running before, Ganeti will still thinks it needs to be running). This can be useful for a cluster-wide shutdown, where some instances are marked as up and some as down, and you don't want to change the running state: you just need to disable the watcher, shutdown all instances with --no-remember, and when the watcher is activated again it will restore the correct runtime state for all instances.

See ganeti(7) for a description of --submit and other common options.

Example:

# gnt-instance shutdown instance1.example.com
# gnt-instance shutdown --all

REBOOT

reboot
[{-t|--type} REBOOT-TYPE]
[--ignore-secondaries]
[--shutdown-timeout=N]
[--force-multiple]
[--instance | --node | --primary | --secondary | --all |
--tags | --node-tags | --pri-node-tags | --sec-node-tags]
[--submit] [--print-job-id]
[name...]

Reboots one or more instances. The type of reboot depends on the value of -t (--type). A soft reboot does a hypervisor reboot, a hard reboot does a instance stop, recreates the hypervisor config for the instance and starts the instance. A full reboot does the equivalent of gnt-instance shutdown && gnt-instance startup. The default is hard reboot.

For the hard reboot the option --ignore-secondaries ignores errors for the secondary node while re-assembling the instance disks.

The --instance, --node, --primary, --secondary, --all, --tags, --node-tags, --pri-node-tags and --sec-node-tags options are similar as for the startup command and they influence the actual instances being rebooted.

The --shutdown-timeout is used to specify how much time to wait before forcing the shutdown (xm destroy in xen, killing the kvm process, for kvm). By default two minutes are given to each instance to stop.

The --force-multiple will skip the interactive confirmation in the case the more than one instance will be affected.

See ganeti(7) for a description of --submit and other common options.

Example:

# gnt-instance reboot instance1.example.com
# gnt-instance reboot --type=full instance1.example.com

CONSOLE

console [--show-cmd] {instance}

Connects to the console of the given instance. If the instance is not up, an error is returned. Use the --show-cmd option to display the command instead of executing it.

For HVM instances, this will attempt to connect to the serial console of the instance. To connect to the virtualized "physical" console of a HVM instance, use a VNC client with the connection info from the info command.

For Xen/kvm instances, if the instance is paused, this attempts to unpause the instance after waiting a few seconds for the connection to the console to be made.

Example:

# gnt-instance console instance1.example.com

Disk management

REPLACE-DISKS

replace-disks [--submit] [--print-job-id] [--early-release]
[--ignore-ipolicy] {-p} [--disks idx] {instance}

replace-disks [--submit] [--print-job-id] [--early-release]
[--ignore-ipolicy] {-s} [--disks idx] {instance}

replace-disks [--submit] [--print-job-id] [--early-release]
[--ignore-ipolicy]
{{-I|--iallocator} name | {{-n|--new-secondary} node } {instance}

replace-disks [--submit] [--print-job-id] [--early-release]
[--ignore-ipolicy] {-a|--auto} {instance}

This command is a generalized form for replacing disks. It is currently only valid for the mirrored (DRBD) disk template.

The first form (when passing the -p option) will replace the disks on the primary, while the second form (when passing the -s option will replace the disks on the secondary node. For these two cases (as the node doesn't change), it is possible to only run the replace for a subset of the disks, using the option --disks which takes a list of comma-delimited disk indices (zero-based), e.g. 0,2 to replace only the first and third disks.

The third form (when passing either the --iallocator or the --new-secondary option) is designed to change secondary node of the instance. Specifying --iallocator makes the new secondary be selected automatically by the specified allocator plugin (use . to indicate the default allocator), otherwise the new secondary node will be the one chosen manually via the --new-secondary option.

Note that it is not possible to select an offline or drained node as a new secondary.

The fourth form (when using --auto) will automatically determine which disks of an instance are faulty and replace them within the same node. The --auto option works only when an instance has only faulty disks on either the primary or secondary node; it doesn't work when both sides have faulty disks.

The --early-release changes the code so that the old storage on secondary node(s) is removed early (before the resync is completed) and the internal Ganeti locks for the current (and new, if any) secondary node are also released, thus allowing more parallelism in the cluster operation. This should be used only when recovering from a disk failure on the current secondary (thus the old storage is already broken) or when the storage on the primary node is known to be fine (thus we won't need the old storage for potential recovery).

The --ignore-ipolicy let the command ignore instance policy violations if replace-disks changes groups and the instance would violate the new groups instance policy.

See ganeti(7) for a description of --submit and other common options.

ACTIVATE-DISKS

activate-disks [--submit] [--print-job-id] [--ignore-size]
[--wait-for-sync] {instance}

Activates the block devices of the given instance. If successful, the command will show the location and name of the block devices:

node1.example.com:disk/0:/dev/drbd0
node1.example.com:disk/1:/dev/drbd1

In this example, node1.example.com is the name of the node on which the devices have been activated. The disk/0 and disk/1 are the Ganeti-names of the instance disks; how they are visible inside the instance is hypervisor-specific. /dev/drbd0 and /dev/drbd1 are the actual block devices as visible on the node.

The --ignore-size option can be used to activate disks ignoring the currently configured size in Ganeti. This can be used in cases where the configuration has gotten out of sync with the real-world (e.g. after a partially-failed grow-disk operation or due to rounding in LVM devices). This should not be used in normal cases, but only when activate-disks fails without it.

The --wait-for-sync option will ensure that the command returns only after the instance's disks are synchronised (mostly for DRBD); this can be useful to ensure consistency, as otherwise there are no commands that can wait until synchronisation is done. However when passing this option, the command will have additional output, making it harder to parse the disk information.

Note that it is safe to run this command while the instance is already running.

See ganeti(7) for a description of --submit and other common options.

DEACTIVATE-DISKS

deactivate-disks [-f] [--submit] [--print-job-id] {instance}

De-activates the block devices of the given instance. Note that if you run this command for an instance with a drbd disk template, while it is running, it will not be able to shutdown the block devices on the primary node, but it will shutdown the block devices on the secondary nodes, thus breaking the replication.

The -f/--force option will skip checks that the instance is down; in case the hypervisor is confused and we can't talk to it, normally Ganeti will refuse to deactivate the disks, but with this option passed it will skip this check and directly try to deactivate the disks. This can still fail due to the instance actually running or other issues.

See ganeti(7) for a description of --submit and other common options.

GROW-DISK

grow-disk [--no-wait-for-sync] [--submit] [--print-job-id]
[--absolute]
{instance} {disk} {amount}

Grows an instance's disk. This is only possible for instances having a plain, drbd, file, sharedfile, rbd or ext disk template. For the ext template to work, the ExtStorage provider should also support growing. This means having a grow script that actually grows the volume of the external shared storage.

Note that this command only change the block device size; it will not grow the actual filesystems, partitions, etc. that live on that disk. Usually, you will need to:

  1. use gnt-instance grow-disk

  2. reboot the instance (later, at a convenient time)

  3. use a filesystem resizer, such as ext2online(8) or xfs_growfs(8) to resize the filesystem, or use fdisk(8) to change the partition table on the disk

The disk argument is the index of the instance disk to grow. The amount argument is given as a number which can have a suffix (like the disk size in instance create); if the suffix is missing, the value will be interpreted as mebibytes.

By default, the amount value represents the desired increase in the disk size (e.g. an amount of 1G will take a disk of size 3G to 4G). If the optional --absolute parameter is passed, then the amount argument doesn't represent the delta, but instead the desired final disk size (e.g. an amount of 8G will take a disk of size 4G to 8G).

For instances with a drbd template, note that the disk grow operation might complete on one node but fail on the other; this will leave the instance with different-sized LVs on the two nodes, but this will not create problems (except for unused space).

If you do not want gnt-instance to wait for the new disk region to be synced, use the --no-wait-for-sync option.

See ganeti(7) for a description of --submit and other common options.

Example (increase the first disk for instance1 by 16GiB):

# gnt-instance grow-disk instance1.example.com 0 16g

Example for increasing the disk size to a certain size:

# gnt-instance grow-disk --absolute instance1.example.com 0 32g

Also note that disk shrinking is not supported; use gnt-backup export and then gnt-backup import to reduce the disk size of an instance.

RECREATE-DISKS

recreate-disks [--submit] [--print-job-id]
[{-n node1:[node2] | {-I|--iallocator name}}]
[--disk=N[:[size=VAL][,spindles=VAL][,mode=ro|rw]]] {instance}

Recreates all or a subset of disks of the given instance.

Note that this functionality should only be used for missing disks; if any of the given disks already exists, the operation will fail. While this is suboptimal, recreate-disks should hopefully not be needed in normal operation and as such the impact of this is low.

If only a subset should be recreated, any number of disk options can be specified. It expects a disk index and an optional list of disk parameters to change. Only size, spindles, and mode can be changed while recreating disks. To recreate all disks while changing parameters on a subset only, a --disk option must be given for every disk of the instance.

Optionally the instance's disks can be recreated on different nodes. This can be useful if, for example, the original nodes of the instance have gone down (and are marked offline), so we can't recreate on the same nodes. To do this, pass the new node(s) via -n option, with a syntax similar to the add command. The number of nodes passed must equal the number of nodes that the instance currently has. Note that changing nodes is only allowed when all disks are replaced, e.g. when no --disk option is passed.

Another method of choosing which nodes to place the instance on is by using the specified iallocator, passing the --iallocator option. The primary and secondary nodes will be chosen by the specified iallocator plugin, or by the default allocator if . is specified.

See ganeti(7) for a description of --submit and other common options.

Recovery/moving

FAILOVER

failover [-f] [--ignore-consistency] [--ignore-ipolicy]
[--shutdown-timeout=N]
[{-n|--target-node} node | {-I|--iallocator} name]
[--cleanup]
[--submit] [--print-job-id]
{instance}

Failover will stop the instance (if running), change its primary node, and if it was originally running it will start it again (on the new primary). This works for instances with drbd template (in which case you can only fail to the secondary node) and for externally mirrored templates (sharedfile, blockdev, rbd and ext) (in which case you can fail to any other node).

If the instance's disk template is of type sharedfile, blockdev, rbd or ext, then you can explicitly specify the target node (which can be any node) using the -n or --target-node option, or specify an iallocator plugin using the -I or --iallocator option. If you omit both, the default iallocator will be used to specify the target node.

If the instance's disk template is of type drbd, the target node is automatically selected as the drbd's secondary node. Changing the secondary node is possible with a replace-disks operation.

Normally the failover will check the consistency of the disks before failing over the instance. If you are trying to migrate instances off a dead node, this will fail. Use the --ignore-consistency option for this purpose. Note that this option can be dangerous as errors in shutting down the instance will be ignored, resulting in possibly having the instance running on two machines in parallel (on disconnected DRBD drives).

The --shutdown-timeout is used to specify how much time to wait before forcing the shutdown (xm destroy in xen, killing the kvm process, for kvm). By default two minutes are given to each instance to stop.

If --ignore-ipolicy is given any instance policy violations occuring during this operation are ignored.

If the --cleanup option is passed, the operation changes from performin a failover to attempting recovery from a failed previous failover. In this mode, Ganeti checks if the instance runs on the correct node (and updates its configuration if not) and ensures the instances' disks are configured correctly.

See ganeti(7) for a description of --submit and other common options.

Example:

# gnt-instance failover instance1.example.com

For externally mirrored templates also -n is available:

# gnt-instance failover -n node3.example.com instance1.example.com

MIGRATE

migrate [-f] [--allow-failover] [--non-live]
[--migration-mode=live|non-live] [--ignore-ipolicy]
[--no-runtime-changes] [--submit] [--print-job-id]
[{-n|--target-node} node | {-I|--iallocator} name] {instance}

migrate [-f] --cleanup [--submit] [--print-job-id] {instance}

Migrate will move the instance to its secondary node without shutdown. As with failover, it works for instances having the drbd disk template or an externally mirrored disk template type such as sharedfile, blockdev, rbd or ext.

If the instance's disk template is of type sharedfile, blockdev, rbd or ext, then you can explicitly specify the target node (which can be any node) using the -n or --target-node option, or specify an iallocator plugin using the -I or --iallocator option. If you omit both, the default iallocator will be used to specify the target node. Alternatively, the default iallocator can be requested by specifying . as the name of the plugin.

If the instance's disk template is of type drbd, the target node is automatically selected as the drbd's secondary node. Changing the secondary node is possible with a replace-disks operation.

The migration command needs a perfectly healthy instance for drbd instances, as we rely on the dual-master capability of drbd8 and the disks of the instance are not allowed to be degraded.

The --non-live and --migration-mode=non-live options will switch (for the hypervisors that support it) between a "fully live" (i.e. the interruption is as minimal as possible) migration and one in which the instance is frozen, its state saved and transported to the remote node, and then resumed there. This all depends on the hypervisor support for two different methods. In any case, it is not an error to pass this parameter (it will just be ignored if the hypervisor doesn't support it). The option --migration-mode=live option will request a fully-live migration. The default, when neither option is passed, depends on the hypervisor parameters (and can be viewed with the gnt-cluster info command).

If the --cleanup option is passed, the operation changes from migration to attempting recovery from a failed previous migration. In this mode, Ganeti checks if the instance runs on the correct node (and updates its configuration if not) and ensures the instances' disks are configured correctly. In this mode, the --non-live option is ignored.

The option -f will skip the prompting for confirmation.

If --allow-failover is specified it tries to fallback to failover if it already can determine that a migration won't work (e.g. if the instance is shut down). Please note that the fallback will not happen during execution. If a migration fails during execution it still fails.

If --ignore-ipolicy is given any instance policy violations occuring during this operation are ignored.

The --no-runtime-changes option forbids migrate to alter an instance's runtime before migrating it (eg. ballooning an instance down because the target node doesn't have enough available memory).

If an instance has the backend parameter always_failover set to true, then the migration is automatically converted into a failover.

See ganeti(7) for a description of --submit and other common options.

Example (and expected output):

# gnt-instance migrate instance1
Instance instance1 will be migrated. Note that migration
might impact the instance if anything goes wrong (e.g. due to bugs in
the hypervisor). Continue?
y/[n]/?: y
Migrating instance instance1.example.com
* checking disk consistency between source and target
* switching node node2.example.com to secondary mode
* changing into standalone mode
* changing disks into dual-master mode
* wait until resync is done
* preparing node2.example.com to accept the instance
* migrating instance to node2.example.com
* switching node node1.example.com to secondary mode
* wait until resync is done
* changing into standalone mode
* changing disks into single-master mode
* wait until resync is done
* done
#

MOVE

move [-f] [--ignore-consistency]
[-n node] [--compress=compression-mode] [--shutdown-timeout=N]
[--submit] [--print-job-id] [--ignore-ipolicy]
{instance}

Move will move the instance to an arbitrary node in the cluster. This works only for instances having a plain or file disk template.

Note that since this operation is done via data copy, it will take a long time for big disks (similar to replace-disks for a drbd instance).

The --compress option is used to specify which compression mode is used during the move. Valid values are 'none' (the default) and 'gzip'.

The --shutdown-timeout is used to specify how much time to wait before forcing the shutdown (e.g. xm destroy in XEN, killing the kvm process for KVM, etc.). By default two minutes are given to each instance to stop.

The --ignore-consistency option will make Ganeti ignore any errors in trying to shutdown the instance on its node; useful if the hypervisor is broken and you want to recover the data.

If --ignore-ipolicy is given any instance policy violations occuring during this operation are ignored.

See ganeti(7) for a description of --submit and other common options.

Example:

# gnt-instance move -n node3.example.com instance1.example.com

CHANGE-GROUP

change-group [--submit] [--print-job-id]
[--iallocator NAME] [--to GROUP...] {instance}

This command moves an instance to another node group. The move is calculated by an iallocator, either given on the command line or as a cluster default. Note that the iallocator does only consider disk information of the default disk template, even if the instances' disk templates differ from that.

If no specific destination groups are specified using --to, all groups except the one containing the instance are considered.

See ganeti(7) for a description of --submit and other common options.

Example:

# gnt-instance change-group -I hail --to rack2 inst1.example.com

Tags

ADD-TAGS

add-tags [--from file] {instancename} {tag...}

Add tags to the given instance. If any of the tags contains invalid characters, the entire operation will abort.

If the --from option is given, the list of tags will be extended with the contents of that file (each line becomes a tag). In this case, there is not need to pass tags on the command line (if you do, both sources will be used). A file name of - will be interpreted as stdin.

LIST-TAGS

list-tags {instancename}

List the tags of the given instance.

REMOVE-TAGS

remove-tags [--from file] {instancename} {tag...}

Remove tags from the given instance. If any of the tags are not existing on the node, the entire operation will abort.

If the --from option is given, the list of tags to be removed will be extended with the contents of that file (each line becomes a tag). In this case, there is not need to pass tags on the command line (if you do, tags from both sources will be removed). A file name of - will be interpreted as stdin.

REPORTING BUGS

Report bugs to project website or contact the developers using the Ganeti mailing list.

SEE ALSO

Ganeti overview and specifications: ganeti(7) (general overview), ganeti-os-interface(7) (guest OS definitions), ganeti-extstorage-interface(7) (external storage providers).

Ganeti commands: gnt-cluster(8) (cluster-wide commands), gnt-job(8) (job-related commands), gnt-node(8) (node-related commands), gnt-instance(8) (instance commands), gnt-os(8) (guest OS commands), gnt-storage(8) (storage commands), gnt-group(8) (node group commands), gnt-backup(8) (instance import/export commands), gnt-debug(8) (debug commands).

Ganeti daemons: ganeti-watcher(8) (automatic instance restarter), ganeti-cleaner(8) (job queue cleaner), ganeti-noded(8) (node daemon), ganeti-masterd(8) (master daemon), ganeti-rapi(8) (remote API daemon).

Ganeti htools: htools(1) (generic binary), hbal(1) (cluster balancer), hspace(1) (capacity calculation), hail(1) (IAllocator plugin), hscan(1) (data gatherer from remote clusters), hinfo(1) (cluster information printer), mon-collector(7) (data collectors interface).

COPYRIGHT

Copyright (C) 2006, 2007, 2008, 2009, 2010, 2011, 2012 Google Inc. Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by the Free Software Foundation; either version 2 of the License, or (at your option) any later version.

On Debian systems, the complete text of the GNU General Public License can be found in /usr/share/common-licenses/GPL.